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Glossary

Acetate
A transparent sheet placed over originals or artwork, allowing the designer to write instructions and\or indicate a second color for placement.

Acid-free Paper
Papermade from pulp containing little or no acid so it resists deterioration from age. Also called alkaline paper, archival paper, neutral pH paper, permanent paper and thesis paper.

Against the Grain
At right angles to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared to with the grain. Also called across the grain and cross grain. See also Grain Direction.

Author's Alterations (AA's)
At the proofing stage, changes that the client requests to be made concerning original art provided. AA's are considered an additional cost to the client usually.

Bind
Usually in the book arena, but not exclusively, the joining of leafs or signatures together with either wire, glue or other means.

Bindery
Usually a department within a printing company responsible for collating, folding and trimming various printing projects.

Bleed
Printing that extends to the edge of a sheet or page after trimming.

Bond paper
Category of paper commonly used for writing, printing and photocopying. Also called business paper, communication paper, correspondence paper and writing paper.

Border
The decorative design or rule surrounding matter on a page.

Bounce
(1) a repeating registration problem in the printing stage of production. (2) Customer unhappy with the results of a printing project and refuses to accept the project.

Bristol Paper
General term referring to paper 6 points or thicker with basis weight between 90# and 200# (200-500 gsm). Used for products such as index cards, file folders and displays.

Broadside
The term used to indicate work printed on one of a large sheet of paper.

C1S and C2S
Abbreviations for coated one side and coated two sides.

Carbonless Paper
Paper coated with chemicals that enable transfer of images from one sheet to another with pressure from writing or typing.

Case Bind
To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made of binder board covered with fabric, plastic or leather. Also called cloth bind, edition bind, hard bind and hard cover.

Cast-coated Paper
High gloss, coated paper made by pressing the paper against a polished, hot, metal drum while the coating is still wet.

CMYK
Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four process colors.

Coated Paper
Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories cast, gloss, dull and matte.

Collate
To organize printed matter in a specific order as requested.

Color Correct
To adjust the relationship among the process colors to achieve desirable colors.

Color Curves
Instructions in computer software that allow users to change or correct colors. Also called HLS and HVS tables.

Color Shift
Change in image color resulting from changes in register, ink densities or dot gain during four-color process printing.

Comb Bind
To bind by inserting the teeth of a flexible plastic comb through holes punched along the edge of a stack of paper. Also called plastic bind and GBC bind (a brand name).

Contrast
The degree of tones in an image ranging from highlight to shadow.

Cover
Thick paper that protects a publication and advertises its title. Parts of covers are often described as follows: Cover 1=outside front; Cover 2=inside front; Cover 3=inside back, Cover 4=outside back.

Coverage
Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate. Ink coverage is usually expressed as light, medium or heavy.

Cover Paper
Category of thick paper used for products such as posters, menus, folders and covers of paperback books.

Creep
Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending slightly beyond outside pages. Also called feathering, outpush, push out and thrust. See also Shingling.

Crop Marks
Lines near the edges of an image indicating portions to be reproduced. Also called cut marks and tic marks.

Crossover
Type or art that continues from one page of a book or magazine across the gutter to the opposite page. Also called bridge, gutter bleed and gutter jump.

Cut Sizes
Paper sizes used with office machines and small presses.

Cutting Machine
A machine that cuts stacks of paper to desired sizes. The machine can also be used in scoring or creasing.

Cutting Die
Usually a custom ordered item to trim specific and unusual sized printing projects.

Cyan
One of the four process colors. Also known as process blue.

Deckle Edge
Edge of paper left ragged as it comes from the papermaking machine instead of being cleanly cut. Also called feather edge.

Density
(1) Regarding ink, the relative thickness of a layer of printed ink. (2) Regarding color, the relative ability of a color to absorb light reflected from it or block light passing through it. (3) Regarding paper, the relative tightness or looseness of fibers.

Digital Proofing
Page proofs produced through electronic memory transferred onto paper via laser or ink-jet.

Dog Ear
A letter fold at the side of one of the creases, an indentation occurs.

Dot Gain
Phenomenon of halftone dots printing larger on paper than they are on films or plates, reducing detail and lowering contrast. Also called dot growth, dot spread and press gain.

Drill
In the printing arena, to drill a whole in a printed matter.

Dull Finish
Flat (not glossy) finish on coated paper; slightly smoother than matte. Also called suede finish, velour finish and velvet finish.

Dummy
Simulation of the final product. Also called mockup.

End Sheet
Sheet that attaches the inside pages of a case bound book to its cover. Also called pastedown or end papers.

Estimate
Price that states what a job will probably cost. Also called bid, quotation and tender.

Face
Edge of a bound publication opposite the spine. Also called foredge. Also, an abbreviation for typeface referring to a family of a general style.

Film Laminate
Thin sheet of plastic bonded to a printed product for protection or increased gloss.

Finished Size
Size of product after production is completed, as compared to flat size. Also called trimmed size.

Folio (page number)
The actual page number in a publication.
paper, ink, laminates, UV coating, varnish).

Grain Direction
Predominant direction in which fibers in paper become aligned during manufacturing. Also called machine direction.

Grain Long Paper
Paper whose fibers run parallel to the long dimension of the sheet. Also called long grain paper and narrow web paper.

Grain Short Paper
Paper whose fibers run parallel to the short dimension of the sheet. Also called short grain paper and wide web paper.

Graphics
Visual elements that supplement type to make printed messages more clear or interesting.

Grind Edge
Alternate term for binding edge when referring to perfect bound products.

Grindoff
Approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) along the spine that is ground off gathered signatures before perfect binding.

Gutter
In the book arena, the inside margins toward the back or the binding edges.

Hairline (Rule)
Subjective term referring to very small space, thin line or close register. The meaning depends on who is using the term and in what circumstances.

Hinged Cover
Perfect bound cover scored 1/8 inch (3mm) from the spine so it folds at the hinge instead of, along the edge of the spine.

Image Area
The actual area on the printed matter that is not restricted to ink coverage,

Imposition
Arrangement of pages on mechanicals or flats so they will appear in proper sequence after press sheets are folded and bound.

Impression
(1) Referring to an ink color, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through a printing unit. (2) Referring to speed of a press, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through the press.

Job Number
A number assigned to a specific printing project in a printing company for use in tracking and historical record keeping.

Job Ticket
Form used by service bureaus, separators and printers to specify production schedule of a job and the materials it needs. Also called docket, production order and work order.

Jogger
A vibration machine with a slopping platform to even-up stacks of printed materials.

Laminate
A thin transparent plastic sheet (coating) applied to usually a thick stock (covers, post cards, etc.) providing protection against liquid and heavy use, and usually accents existing color, providing a glossy (or lens) effect.

Landscape
Artist style in which width is greater than height. (Portrait is opposite.)

Layout
A sample of the original providing (showing) position of printed work (direction, instructions) needed and desired.

Letter fold
Two folds creating three panels that allow a sheet of letterhead to fit a business envelope. Also called barrel fold and wrap around fold.

Makeready
(1) All activities required to prepare a press or other machine to function for a specific printing or bindery job, as compared to production run. Also called setup. (2) Paper used in the makeready process at any stage in production. Makeready paper is part of waste or spoilage.

Margin
Imprinted space around the edge of the printed material.

Midtones
In a photograph or illustration, tones created by dots between 30 percent and 70 percent of coverage, as compared to highlights and shadows.

Mottle
Spotty, uneven ink absorption. Also called sinkage. A mottled image may be called mealy.

Nested
Signatures assembled inside one another in the proper sequence for binding, as compared to gathered. Also called inset.

Offset Printing
Printing technique that transfers ink from a plate to a blanket to paper instead of directly from plate to paper.

Opacity
(1) Characteristic of paper or other substrate that prevents printing on one side from showing through the other side. (2) Characteristic of ink that prevents the substrate from showing through.

Page
One side of a leaf in a publication.

Page Count
Total number of pages that a publication has. Also called extent.

Page Proof
Proof of type and graphics as they will look on the finished page complete with elements such as headings, rules and folios.

Pagination
In the book arena, the numbering of pages.

Panel
One page of a brochure, such as one panel of a rack brochure. One panel is on one side of the paper. A letter-folded sheet has six panels, not three.

Perfect Bind
To bind sheets that have been ground at the spine and are held to the cover by glue. Also called adhesive bind, cut-back bind, glue bind, paper bind, patent bind, perfecting bind, soft bind and soft cover. See also Burst Perfect Bind.

Perforating
Taking place on a press or a binder machine, creating a line of small dotted wholes for the purpose of tearing-off a part of a printed matter (usually straight lines, vertical or horizontal).

Portrait
An art design in which the height is greater than the width. (Opposite of Landscape.)

Quotation
Price offered by a printer to produce a specific job.

Raster Image Processor
Device that translates page description commands into bitmapped information for an output device such as a laser printer or imagesetter.

Reader Spread
Mechanicals made in two page spreads as readers would see the pages, as compared to printer spread.

Ream
500 sheets of paper.

Recycled Paper
New paper made entirely or in part from old paper.

Resolution
Sharpness of an image on film, paper, computer screen, disc, tape or other medium.

Reverse
Type, graphic or illustration reproduced by printing ink around its outline, thus allowing the underlying color or paper to show through and form the image. The image 'reverses out' of the ink color. Also called knockout and liftout.

RGB
Abbreviation for red, green, blue, the additive color primaries.

Rule
Line used as a graphic element to separate or organize copy.

Saddle Stitch
To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the spine, as compared to side stitch. Also called pamphlet stitch, saddle wire and stitch bind.

Satin Finish
Alternate term for dull finish on coated paper.

Scanner
Electronic device used to scan an image.

Score
To compress paper along a straight line so it folds more easily and accurately. Also called crease.

Self Cover
Usually in the book arena, a publication not having a cover stock. A publication only using text stock throughout.

Self Mailer
A printed item independent of an envelope. A printed item capable of travel in the mailing arena independently.

Side stitch
To bind by stapling through sheets along, one edge, as compared to saddle stitch. Also called cleat stitch and side wire.

Slip Sheets
Separate sheets (stock) independent from the original run positioned between the "printed run" for a variety of reasons.

Solid
Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage, as compared to a screen tint.

Spine
Back or binding edge of a publication

Spiral Bind
To bind using a spiral of continuous wire or plastic looped through holes. Also called coil bind.

Substrate
Any surface or material on which printing is done.

Tag
Grade of dense, strong paper used for products such as badges and file folders.

Tagged Image File Format
Computer file format used to store images from scanners and video devices. Abbreviated TIFF.

Text Paper
Designation for printing papers with textured surfaces such as laid or linen. Some mills also use 'text' to refer to any paper they consider top-of-the-line, whether or not its surface has a texture.

Trap
To print one ink over another or to print a coating, such as varnish, over an ink. The first liquid traps the second liquid. See also Dry Traps and Wet Traps.

Trim Size
The size of the printed material in its finished stage (e.g., the finished trim size is 5 1\2 x 8 1\2).

Watermark
Translucent logo in paper created during manufacturing by slight embossing from a dandy roll while paper is still approximately 90 percent water.

With the Grain
Parallel to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared to against the grain. See also Grain Direction.